Energy from waste:

Bioenergy

  • Conventional Renewable power generation – Fluidised Bed Biomass combustion

    Conventional Renewable power generation – Fluidised Bed Biomass combustion

    Supervisor: Supervisors: Dr Bill Nimmo and Prof Lin Ma

     

    To achieve the UK’s ambitious target of reducing greenhouse gas emissions by 80% by 2050 without compromising energy security, the UK’s conventional power plants must be operated in a flexible manner in terms of high efficiency, using alternative fuels (e.g. biomass) and integrating technologies for carbon abatement (e.g. Carbon Capture and Storage, CCS). Ultra-supercritical (USC) steam Rankine cycle power generation combined with Circulating Fluidised Bed (CFB) and Fluidized Bed (FB) combustion technology is the most viable alternative to the pulverised coal (PC)-based USC power generation. In addition, operating under USC/FB/CFB conditions has a number of advantages over USC/PC, particularly regarding fuel flexibility.

    However, there are still many fundamental research and technical challenges facing the development of this technology. In particular, combustion issues related to safe and stable operation of CFB/FB boilers when burning a variety of solid fuels are not yet fully understood and there is a great need to develop novel materials that will be able to cope with adverse conditions associated with operation.

    The specific project areas would include:

    To understand how the combustion of a variety of fuels affects Emissions, bed material agglomeration, fouling and corrosion of boiler heat exchanger tubes.

    Facilities at the University main campus and at the LCCC will be offered to suitably qualified students for study leading to a PhD in combinations of the following areas.

    1.       combustion testing at pilot scale  (250 kW Fluidised bed),

    2.       deposition testing and experimentation at pilot plant scale,

    3.       corrosion testing in lab scale furnaces,

    4.       fundamental TGA decomposition studies,

    5.       Biomass characterisation

    6.       Fluidised bed modelling and CFD studies

     

  • Conventional Renewable power generation – Fluidised Bed Biomass combustion

    Mitigation of ash deposition, slagging and fouling in biomass fired power generation

    Supervisor: Professor Mohamed Pourkashanian, Dr Kevin Hughes, Professor Lin Ma and Dr Janos Szuhanszki 

     

    Switching from fossil fuel fired power generation to the combustion of sustainably produced biomass can achieve near zero CO2 emissions, thereby significantly contributing to the decarbonisation of the energy sector. However, burning biomass in power plants designed for coal firing poses a number of challenges, including increased slagging and fouling and corrosion potential, which can reduce overall efficiency and plant availability.

    Making use of the state of the art 250 kW Combustion Test Facility at the Pilot Scale Advanced Capture Technology (PACT) Facilities, this project will involve a thorough and innovative experimental programme to characterise the above phenomena and correlate the findings with Computational Fluid Dynamics based modelling work as part of an integrated team.

    A central aim of the project is to identify successful mitigation strategies and thereby enhance the commercial viability of biomass fired power generation.

     

  • Conventional Renewable power generation – Fluidised Bed Biomass combustion

    Comparison of entrained metal aerosol emissions from the combustion of different biomass fuels

    Supervisor: Professor Mohamed Pourkashanian, Professor Lin Ma, Dr Kevin Hughes and Dr Karen N Finney

    Impurities in fuels have detrimental impacts on combustion/downstream systems, including CCS and heat recovery. Biomass with CCS can be a net negative emissions source, so is gaining interest, but as a result, there is more variation in the fuels being used, from conventional wood pellets to wastes, which have more impurities. This project will compare metal aerosol emissions from the combustion of such fuels throughout the combustion/capture plants, assessing the differences in the levels and species, monitored via ICP-OES at the UKCCSRC PACT Core Facilities. Quantitative data on the simultaneous multi-elemental detection for volatile/non-volatile species (major to ultra-trace elements) will focus on alkali (K, Na), transition (Fe, V, Zn) and heavy (Cd, Hg, Cr) metals, as well as acidic elements (S), as these are toxic, easily vaporised and/or cause operational issues. Combined with data for ash residue analysis (composition), mass balances will enable the determination of element partition/the fate of specific species, thus aiding in the development of better gas cleaning methods tailored for individual fuels and operation conditions.

     

  • Conventional Renewable power generation – Fluidised Bed Biomass combustion

    Conventional renewable power generation - fluidised bed biomass combustion

    Supervisor: Dr W Nimmo

    To achieve the UK’s ambitious target of reducing greenhouse gas emissions by 80% by 2050 without compromising energy security, the UK’s conventional power plants must be operated in a flexible manner in terms of high efficiency, using alternative fuels (e.g. biomass) and integrating technologies for carbon abatement (e.g. Carbon Capture and Storage, CCS). Ultra-supercritical (USC) steam Rankine cycle power generation combined with Circulating Fluidised Bed (CFB) and Fluidized Bed (FB) combustion technology is the most viable alternative to the pulverised coal (PC)-based USC power generation. In addition, operating under USC/FB/CFB conditions has a number of advantages over USC/PC, particularly regarding fuel flexibility. However, there are still many fundamental research and technical challenges facing the development of this technology. In particular, combustion issues related to safe and stable operation of CFB/FB boilers when burning a variety of solid fuels are not yet fully understood and there is a great need to develop novel materials that will be able to cope with adverse conditions associated with operation.

    The specific project areas would include:

    To understand how the combustion of a variety of fuels affects Emissions, bed material agglomeration, fouling and corrosion of boiler heat exchanger tubes.

    Facilities at the University main campus and at the LCCC will be offered to suitably qualified students for study leading to a PhD in combinations of the following areas.

    1. Combustion testing at pilot scale (250 kW Fluidised bed)
    2. Deposition testing and experimentation at pilot plant scale
    3. Corrosion testing in lab scale furnaces
    4. Fundamental TGA decomposition studies
    5. Biomass characterisation

  • Conventional Renewable power generation – Fluidised Bed Biomass combustion

    Negative CO2 Emissions through Combining Bio-Energy and Carbon Capture

    Supervisor: Professor Mohamed Pourkashanian, Professor Lin Ma and Dr Kevin Hughes

    Stringent CO2 emission reduction targets that are now in effect mean that the carbon intensity of energy generation from all sources needs to be considerably reduced in order to meet such goals. The use of biomass fuels – either dedicated biomass firing or co-firing with fossil fuels, such as coal – can considerably minimise the net CO2 emissions to atmosphere from conventional energy generation processes, i.e. combustion. Coupling biomass utilisation with carbon capture and storage (CCS) technologies could mean the CO2 emissions from such forms of energy production are further reduced and even have the potential to lead to zero or negative emissions. This project will aim to compare different fuel resources (coal, wood chips and co-firing these two fuels) in terms of their carbon intensity and techno-economics, when used with and without CCS applications. A large-scale power facility will be modelled using the IECM and Aspen packages to achieve the project objectives, with input data and other parameters being acquired from the literature review conducted.